You can check group membership with the Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC) console snap-in by finding the user or group of interest and drilling down into the object's properties and clicking the “Members” or “Member Of” tab.
How to Check AD Group Membership with Command Line - Netwrix
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You could query ADSI just by using the domain name and domain container. In this article, I am going to use the following OU and DC. Note: Please replace the OU, DC and CN information mentioned here with your company's OU, CN and DC. The first method to query Active Directory from SQL Server is by using OpenRowSet.
Query Active Directory Data from SQL Server using T-SQL
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To get more database specific information you can go to the database you are interested in and use sys. user_token to get a list of roles/AD groups associated with that database. In this case principal_id is associated with sys. database_principals .
How to find list of AD groups of a user from SQL Server
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Answer: In SQL Server, there is a system view called sys. database_principals. You can run a query against this system view that returns all of the Users that have been created in SQL Server as well as information about these Users.
Find Users in SQL Server - TechOnTheNet
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