Someone spent $28 million for a seat on the Bezos space flight and now they're bailing

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CNN 15 July, 2021 - 07:52pm 22 views

Is Jeff Bezos going to space?

When is Jeff Bezos going to space? Bezos will head skywards on Tuesday, July 20, 2021 on a journey that from lift-off to soft landing will take just 11 minutes. ForbesJeff Bezos In Space: When And Where You Can Watch The Billionaire Take An 11-Minute Trip To The Edge Of Space

When is Blue Origin flight?

The flight is scheduled for Tuesday, June 20, and Blue Origin's coverage will begin at 4:30 a.m. PT (7:30 a.m. ET). CNETBezos blasts off on Blue Origin's first crewed flight: How to watch live

When is Bezos space flight?

“Ever since I was five years old, I've dreamed of traveling to space,” Mr. Bezos said in an Instagram post. “On July 20th, I will take that journey with my brother. The greatest adventure, with my best friend.” Liftoff! The Wall Street JournalJeff Bezos in Space: What the 10-Minute Blue Origin Flight Will Be Like

Who is Oliver daemon?

18-year-old Oliver Daemon will join Blue Origin's founder Jeff Bezos, his brother Mark, and 82-year-old aviator Wally Funk on the suborbital mission launching July 20 from Van Horn, Texas. ... According to Blue Origin, he plans to attend college at the University of Utrecht to study physics and innovation management. WMFEBlue Origin's Fourth And Final Passenger Will Be Youngest To Launch To Space

Updated 8:52 PM ET, Thu July 15, 2021

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Branson, Bezos and the frontiers of outer space

Hindustan Times 16 July, 2021 - 12:01am

On July 11, noted British businessman, Richard Branson beat his American rival and Amazon founder, Jeff Bezos, to the edge of space. Aboard his company Virgin Galactic’s VSS Unity, Branson and his crew of five, successfully completed a sub-orbital flight to 86 kilometres above mean sea level and back.

Bezos is scheduled to take his own company Blue Origin’s Blue Shepard vehicle into space a mere nine days later (July 20) to mark the anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing. Bezos has repeatedly emphasised the point of departure from Branson’s mission, in that his flight will pass the Karman line, an imaginary line 100 kilometres above the mean sea level that is regarded by many as the boundary where outer space begins.

The feud between the billionaires has reignited the decades-old debate on the precise demarcation between the frontiers of air and space.

Also Read | Jeff Bezos spaceflight: US approves Blue Origin license ahead of crewed voyage

Apart from flattering the egos of the concerned billionaires, the question of whether these sub-orbital flights advertised as “space flights” actually fly into space carries important regulatory consequences. The answer to the question determines the applicable legal framework, which are based on fundamentally divergent premises and can lead to potentially different outcomes.

The legal regime governing outer space, which has developed as a distinct body within international law, after the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, is composed principally of five multilateral treaties negotiated during the Cold War era, including the framework 1967 Outer Space Treaty. During this period, the idea of private participation in space was thought to be inconceivable. The regime is premised on the idea, which is reflected in the treaties, that outer space is free for exploration by all States; not subject to national appropriation; and must be used peacefully.

In contrast, by the time of Sputnik-1 launch, there was a well-defined body of rules governing commercial air travel, notably the Chicago and Warsaw Conventions. The legal regime was premised on the basis that air space constitutes an extension of the territory of the State over which it exercises complete and exclusive sovereignty.

This distinction has important practical consequences, in so far as vehicle can enter a State’s airspace only with its consent and is subject to its domestic laws. On the other hand, a vehicle, once it enters outer space, is no longer subject to national sovereignty and enjoys the freedom to explore space as accorded by the space treaties.

The applicable rules concerning both passenger liability and third party liability are different across the two regimes. Under international aviation law, there are multilateral treaties such as the Montreal and Rome Convention, which provide for liability of carriers for passenger injury or death and liability of operators for damage on the surface caused by the aircraft.

In contrast, under the antiquated space treaties, following the “State-oriented” model, the liability is imposed on the launching State for third party damage caused by a space object, whereas there exists no possibility of space tourists to claim compensation for injury or death. It is therefore not surprising that in view of the growing private participation in space, a number of States have enacted legislations which enable them to pass on the financial responsibility to private actors.

Despite the fundamentally different premise governing air travel, the drafters of the outer space treaties, including the principal 1967 Outer Space Treaty could not agree on any particular definition of outer space.

Accordingly, from a legal perspective, it was not clear where the frontier of space begins or more precisely, where air ends and space begins. For many years, prior to private participation in space activities and the evolution of reusable suborbital flights, this lack of a precise delimitation did not lead to any practical problems. The fact that major space faring states such as the United States found it to be in their security interest to not have a precise delimitation also led to an agnostic position on the issue.

However, this is not to suggest that attempts at a precise delimitation have not been made. Various proposals have been discussed at demarcating air and space. In the 1950s, noted Hungarian physicist, Von Karman, on the basis of atmospheric calculations, proposed a boundary that was rounded off to an altitude of 100 km above mean sea level. The 100 km boundary has accordingly become synonymous with the Karman line and the has been incorporated by some countries, such as Australia, in their domestic space legislations. Other proposals have sought to place the boundary at the lower perigee of an orbiting satellite ranging from 160 km to 100 km above mean sea level. More recently, Von Karman’s work has been revisited and it has been suggested that the actual boundary fixed by Karman was closer to approximately 84km above sea level.

Fixing any such boundary, however, is not without its own set of opponents. Too high a boundary might impede the peaceful exploration of outer space and too low a boundary may bring its own set of security concerns.

Nevertheless, with the advent of commercial space tourism, it may no longer be sustainable to leave the issue of delimitation of air and space undetermined. Given the proposal to begin regular private sub-orbital space flights by 2022, it may be an opportune time to revisit and finally decide the delimitation between air and space. It is important to appreciate that apart from the practical issues of navigation and liability that arise in the context of space flight, a variety of connected regulatory issues ranging from taxation to intellectual property would gain clarity, with the definitive demarcation of air and outer space.

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With Blue Origin passengers set, suborbital tourism arrives after decades of work - NASASpaceFlight.com

NASASpaceflight.com 15 July, 2021 - 01:15pm

After years of development, suborbital space tourism looks ready to lift off after Virgin Galactic successfully launched its first fully-crewed suborbital mission to space on July 11 following several prior crewed suborbital tests. The Unity 22 mission came just days before Blue Origin is scheduled to make its first passenger suborbital mission no earlier than Tuesday, July 20 using its New Shepard system. 

Both companies have been developing suborbital spacecraft for over a decade, with the ultimate goal of carrying paying customers to the edge of space and back along with an added commitment to take science experiments along on some but not all of those flights as well.

On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first person to fly a suborbital mission to space. And became the first American to travel to space in the process. Shepard’s mission launched from Cape Canaveral and took his Freedom 7 Mercury capsule to an altitude of 187.5 km, before making a safe splashdown in the Atlantic ocean.

After Shepard’s flight, the Air Force’s X-15 hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft also began making suborbital flights. On July 17, 1962, during X-15 Flight 62, pilot Robert M. White flew the rocket-powered spaceplane up to an altitude of 95.9 km, crossing the boundary to space at 80 km as used by the United States.

The X-15 conducted a total of 13 suborbital spaceflights between 1962 and 1968, including two that crossed the Kármán line (the 100 km boundary to space used officially by most of the world — read Jonathan McDowell’s paper examining where the aerodynamic-to-gravity-dominate boundary to space likely resides). Those two flights were piloted by Air Force pilot Joseph A. Walker and remain the highest flights achieved by the X-15.

An X-15 in flight. (Credit: US Air Force)

Although the X-15 was operated by the U.S. Air Force and NASA, and was never intended for tourism, the program helped pave the way for the development of commercial suborbital rocket powered spaceplanes such as Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo.

In May 1996, the Xprize, later renamed the Ansari X Prize, promised to award $10 million to the first non-government organization to launch a crewed spacecraft to space and back twice within two weeks.

The goal of the prize was to help spur the development of low-cost spaceflight, a must if a commercial market was ever to develop. The competition comprised 26 teams from around the world who raced to develop a spacecraft that would meet the requirements.

The prize was won on October 4, 2004, when Scaled Composites completed its second piloted suborbital flight within two weeks using their SpaceShipOne spaceplane. The first flight for the prize occurred five days earlier on September 29.

This was the third time SpaceShipOne was launched, with the first flight occurring on June 24, 2004. The flights, respectively, reached 100.1 km, 102.9 km and 112 km.

VSS Unity is the second SpaceShipTwo vehicle developed by Virgin Galactic. The first, VSS Enterprise was lost in a deadly accident over the Mojave Desert in California on October 31, 2014. 

After a successful climb to altitude and release from its carrier aircraft, VSS Enterprise ignited its engine at 15 km altitude to begin climbing. Just 11 seconds into the burn, the co-pilot prematurely unlocked the feathering mechanism, resulting in the violent aerodynamic breakup of the Enterprise.

The breakup ejected pilot Peter Siebold, still strapped to his seat, who managed to unbuckle himself — despite severe injuries — and safely parachute to the ground. Co-pilot Michael Alsbury died in the crash.

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) ultimately determined the cause of the accident to be a combination of pilot error, inadequate pilot training, spacecraft design flaws that provided no safeguards against accidental pilot command of critical systems at the wrong time in flight, and the FAA for approving the experimental test flight without paying adequate attention to human safety factors or providing guidance.

VSS Unity, named by physicist Stephen Hawking, was about 65% complete at the time of Enterprise’s loss and incorporates lessons learned and post-accident redesigns.

VSS Unity can carry up to four passengers and two pilots. After taking off from Spaceport America in New Mexico, Unity is carried up to just under 15 km by its carrier aircraft VMS Eve. Once at the drop altitude, Unity is released from its mothership and enters a short free fall before igniting its single hybrid rocket motor.

VMS Eve and VSS Unity taking off from @Spaceport_NM yesterday. #Unity22 @NASASpaceflight pic.twitter.com/QlgggtNE10

— Jack Beyer (@thejackbeyer) July 12, 2021

The motor, burning nitrous oxide and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, fires for around one minute, producing 310 kN of thrust with a specific impulse of 250 seconds to bring Unity’s maximum altitude from 15 km to approximately 85 km. Once the engine shuts down, crew and passengers begin to experience approximately 4 minutes of weightlessness and are allowed to unbuckle from their seats and float around the cabin.

During this time, the craft also begins to “feather,” a process where the wings fold into a vertical position in preparation for re-entry. This orientation ensures the craft remains relatively flat during its descent back into Earth’s atmosphere.

After re-entry, the wings fold back into their normal horizontal position, and Unity glides back to land on the same runway it was carried from at Spaceport America.

Virgin Galactic currently has about 600 people signed up for flights, with tickets going for $250,000 as of last report. The company is currently targeting the beginning of next year to start flying its first paying customers.

During the July 11 mission, Branson announced the chance two win two seats aboard a future Virgin Galactic flight, allowing two people the chance to fly to space without needing to pay the ticket price.

New Shepard is a single stage suborbital rocket consisting of the New Shepard booster and capsule. It lifts off from a traditional launch pad, and the booster propulsively lands while the capsule touches down under parachute and retrorocket assistance.

Recovery teams work on the New Shepard capsule following the NS-10 mission (Credit: Blue Origin)

The vehicle launches from Blue Origin’s West Texas facility near Van Horn and is powered by the company’s liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (hydrolox) BE-3 engine.

After liftoff, the booster carries the capsule up to a velocity that allows it to coast upward to between 105-110 km altitude. The booster separates after the boost phase of flight, with both the booster and capsule then following separate trajectories.

The up-to six passengers experience approximately 4 minutes of weightlessness.

Another major difference between the two vehicles is that New Shepard is fully automated, whereas the VSS Unity requires two pilots to manually fly the vehicle all the way up and back down again.

The New Shepard system has undergone 15 uncrewed test flights and a pad abort test. Of those 15 flights, two included tests of the in-flight abort system, and numerous flights carried science experiments as well. A New Shepard booster, on November 23, 2015, became the first rocket to successfully conduct a vertical, retro-propulsive landing after launching a payload toward space.

On July 20, Blue Origin is scheduled to launch company founder Jeff Bezos, his brother Mark, the winner of a seat auction, as well as a member of the “Mercury 13,” Wally Funk. The “Mercury 13” were a group of women who underwent many of the same physiological and psychological training programs as early NASA male astronauts. The program was never official, and none of the women ever flew in space.

Wally, now 82, will see her dream of flying to space come true. When she flies, she will be the oldest person to reach space, breaking the current record set by John Glenn in 1998 when, at the age of 77, he flew the week-long orbital mission of STS-95 aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

Wally Funk with Jeff Bezos. (Credit: Blue Origin)

On Thursday, Blue Origin confirmed the final passenger on the mission: 18 year old Oliver Daemen. Oliver is not the winner of the $28 million auction; that person, despite knowing the date of the flight at the time of the auction, now has a “schedule conflict,” according to Blue Origin.

At 18 years old, Oliver will become the youngest person to reach space, a record currently held by Soviet cosmonaut Ghermon Titov, who flew an orbital mission at age 25.

Oliver’s seat was bought by his father, a hedge fund manager.

In terms of operations, Blue Origin has not yet revealed ticket prices, apart from the seat which was auctioned off for $28 million USD in support of Blue Origin’s Club for the Future charity. 

And that part will be important. Exactly what the price point will be and therefore how accessible it really is for regular people who don’t have a quarter-million dollars to drop on a 5 minute experience is an important part of this equation that is not yet known.

Still, the tourism market does intersect with the suborbital science community. Both Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin are committed to carrying science payloads on these suborbital missions (not all of them) for NASA, other space agencies, universities, and research institutions.

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